U.S. State Department Recommends Rescinding Cuba’s Designation As A State Sponsor of Terrorism

The following press release must be studied carefully by all; especially Caribbeans. Great import may be given to this moment in future times.

Press Statement

John Kerry

Secretary of State

Washington, DC

April 14, 2015

In December 2014, as a critical component of establishing a new direction for U.S.–Cuba relations, the President directed the State Department to launch a review of Cuba’s designation as a State Sponsor of Terrorism and provide a report to him within six months. Last week, the State Department submitted a report to the White House recommending, based on the facts and the statutory standard, that President Obama rescind Cuba’s designation as a State Sponsor of Terrorism.

This recommendation reflects the Department’s assessment that Cuba meets the criteria established by Congress for rescission. While the United States has had, and continues to have, significant concerns and disagreements with a wide range of Cuba’s policies and actions, these concerns and disagreements fall outside of the criteria for designation as a State Sponsor of Terrorism. This review focused on the narrow questions of whether Cuba provided any support for international terrorism during the previous six months, and whether Cuba has provided assurances that it will not support acts of international terrorism in the future, consistent with the statutory standard for rescission.

Circumstances have changed since 1982, when Cuba was originally designated as a State Sponsor of Terrorism because of its efforts to promote armed revolution by forces in Latin America. Our Hemisphere, and the world, look very different today than they did 33 years ago. Our determination, pursuant to the facts, including corroborative assurances received from the Government of Cuba and the statutory standard, is that the time has come to rescind Cuba’s designation as a State Sponsor of Terrorism.

Renaissance Designs Inc. – A Family Affair


For the love of making beauty even more than what you ever imagine: they toil by day and night. Renaissance Designs Incorporated recently celebrated 15 years of dedication to excellence in service.  Judging not only  by the large and joyous gathering the Renaissance Team deserves to celebrate their brilliance.


Surrounded by friends and clients who seemed more like the water of the womb, stories of weddings planned, times of triumph and lovely memories were shared at the Historic Blackwood Screwdocks, Cavan Lane in Bridgetown. What is of note is the fact that in its celebration, Renaissance Designs, through the hosting of its own celebration gave back to its patrons with glee. This is service too sparse today which needs to be made more commonplace.



The audience though select embraced a multi-cultural Barbadiana. Of note, signalling Renaissance Design’s substantial contribution to Barbados, is the attendance of The Honourable Donville Inniss; Minister of Industry, International Business, Commerce and Small Business Development. The warmth that flowed throughout the night thwarted any chill that arose. This warmth could not be coerced into life by anyone; no matter how good the effort made. 



Through the love shared for them by others, one must see in Renaissance Designs Incorporated, a team that goes beyond the call, even when it is not made, to make your event, your memory, a truly joyful and lasting occasion.


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Britain and The United States of America Articulate Security

The following is an article written for the Times by The British Prime Minister and US President about shared security and prosperity of the UK and the USA. We note that it is interesting that this article is published now at a time of fear in Europe amidst anti-Islamic agitation and a Muslim attributed mass murder in France. Read and tell us what you think.

Two hundred years ago this month, Britain and the United States fought each other at the Battle of New Orleans. It was the last major battle where our nations met as enemies. In modern times, our special relationship as allies and partners has been the firm foundation of our shared security and prosperity.

Together we defeated the Nazis and hunted down the core al-Qaeda leadership. Our scientists collaborate to transform our world, from discovering the double helix blueprint of life to creating the technologies that power our digital age. Our businesses, investors and entrepreneurs fuel the largest foreign direct investment relationship between any 2 countries in the world.

Over the past few years, our governments have worked closely to restore economic growth, improve our living standards and make sure families get the help they needed.

Yet we know that progress and prosperity are never guaranteed. As we meet today at the White House, we reaffirm our belief that our ability to defend our freedoms is rooted in our economic strength and the values that we cherish — freedom of expression, the rule of law and strong democratic institutions.

We face pressing challenges, from promoting global growth, including growth and job creation in Europe, to combating global climate change. And as we were reminded so tragically again in Paris last week, terrorism, conflict and instability threaten the values that define us as free peoples. Today we recommit ourselves to our enduring mission: protecting our peoples, safeguarding our economies and defending our values. Once more, Britain and America stand together. Once more, we need strong and determined leadership to meet the challenges of our time.

First, we must do all we can to bolster our economies against another global economic downturn. This means continuing our efforts to spur growth and support good jobs on both sides of the Atlantic.

To start with, we must promote economic policies and reforms that will create jobs and promote growth that is sustainable and balanced. We are working to conclude a comprehensive EU-US trade deal that would significantly expand trade between our nations and support new opportunities for millions of workers in both Europe and the United States. We also have to make sure prosperity is shared broadly.

For economic growth to be sustainable and meaningful, it must reach everyone, not just a few at the top. So we are working to help families to stake their claim to a better future and buy their first home. We are supporting small businesses, expanding apprenticeships, improving education for all, and backing increases in the minimum wage. And we are co-operating to promote clean energy, reduce our carbon emissions and build our resilience to the impacts of climate change.

Second, we will continue to stand together against those who threaten our values and our way of life. When the freedoms that we treasure came under a brutal attack in Paris, the world responded with one voice. Along with our French allies, we have made clear to those who think they can muzzle freedom of speech and expression with violence that our voices will only grow louder. Whether we are facing lone fanatics or terrorist organisations such as al-Qaeda, Islamic State (ISIL) or Boko Haram we will not be cowed by extremists. We will defeat these barbaric killers and their distorted ideology, which tries to justify the murder of innocents, whether children attending school in Peshawar, or girls forced to become suicide bombers in northern Nigeria.

There are more than 1 billion Muslims in the world, the vast majority of whom are sickened by the evil these terrorists claim to perpetrate in the name of Islam. The United States and Britain will continue to work closely with all those who believe in peace and tolerance. The terrorists know only how to destroy, but together we can do something infinitely more powerful: build security, strengthen justice and advance peace.

Finally, we will continue to stand up to Russia’s aggressive actions in Ukraine. If we allow such fundamental breaches of international law to go unchecked, we will all suffer from the instability that would follow. Our strong and united response has sent an unmistakable message that the international community will not stand by as Russia attempts to destabilise Ukraine.

We will continue working in lockstep and putting pressure on Russia to resolve the crisis diplomatically. At the same time we will keep supporting Ukraine as it works to fulfil the economic and democratic aspirations of the Ukrainian people.

Security and prosperity go hand in hand. By confronting the terrorists who threaten us, standing together against Russia’s aggressive acts and continuing our efforts to advance our economic growth, we will continue to advance the security and prosperity that our people deserve.

Protests In Haiti

On the eve of The 2010 Haiti Earthquake’s Anniversary Haiti is in another uproar. Haitian citizens can be found in the streets protesting what they see as injustice and a breach of their constitutional rights. For a protracted period of time President Martelly and his government have been in discussions with The Haitian Opposition in regards to the hosting of elections and the parameters.

In the streets can be found both Martelly and Opposition supporters charging each party they represent with the responsibility of the failure of the electoral process. The crowds are estimated to be 1 500 in number. The Police force can be seen using water canon to disperse crowds and fires are set and people chant their descent.

Today’s protest (one of many) showcases the need for the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) to be more involved in Haiti’s development. We believe that this is the time for the Caribbean Region to unify. Peace and Co-operation should be our major goals and we hope that at some point they are realized.

Demonstrators march through the streets during an anti-government protest in Port-au-Prince 201511103722699580_20


Haiti’s Independence


On this day, we congratulate The Republic of Haiti on completing its 211th. year of Independence. This is a day of pride and celebration for all Caribbean people. Haiti stands as testimony of our spiritual will and ability move beyond boundaries placed before us.

Think about this. When much of The New World was in chains Haiti was free.

Indeed, the world should stand in awe of Haiti’s ability to withstand the global turmoil that ensued after it took its independence from France so many years ago. It is indeed fitting that every first day of every new year the world States must pause their own new-year celebrations to recognize the fortitude and ingenuity of our people. Haiti is a pillar of this world as it is the first country of our contemporary Western dominated world to enjoy universal adult suffrage.  Democracy, which is often touted as the cornerstone of today’s civilization, is indebted to you. The Caribbean and the world owe to you their gratitude.

Long live Haiti!

In celebration of Haiti’s Independence we give you the Preamble of Haiti’s Constitution.


The Haitian people proclaim this constitution in order to:

Ensure their inalienable and imprescriptible rights to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness; in conformity with the Act of Independence of 1804 and the Universal Declaration of the Rights of Man of 1948.

Constitute a socially just, economically free, and politically independent Haitian nation.

Establish a strong and stable State, capable of protecting the country’s values, traditions, sovereignty, independence and national vision.

Implant democracy, which entails ideological pluralism and political rotation and affirm the inviolable rights of the Haitian people.

Strengthen national unity by eliminating all discrimination between the urban and rural populations, by accepting the community of languages and culture and by recognizing the right to progress, information, education, health, employment and leisure for all citizens.

Ensure the separation and the harmonious distribution of the powers of the State at the service of the fundamental interests and priorities of the Nation.

Set up a system of government based on fundamental liberties, and the respect for human rights, social peace, economic equity, concerted action and participation of all the people in major decisions affecting the life of a nation, through effective decentralization.

U.S. Assistance to Haiti Overview: 2010-2015 (Dec. 2014)

Office of the Haiti Special Coordinator
December 29, 2014

Five years after the devastating 2010 earthquake, Haiti has transitioned to a period of long-term development. With the help of the international community, Haiti has made significant advances. The U.S. post-earthquake strategy for Haiti focuses on four sector pillars designed to catalyze economic growth and build long-term stability. Carried out by a range of U.S. departments and agencies, including the U.S. Department of State, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and others, the strategy is designed to be flexible to maximize areas of success and adjust to new challenges. U.S. assistance to Haiti is having a measurable impact in Haiti’s transition: 328,000 earthquake-displaced Haitians were sheltered; 70,000 Haitian farmers are enjoying increased crop yields and higher incomes; 3,300 new Haitian National Police officers were trained and commissioned; some 5,000 jobs were created so far at the Caracol Industrial Park with more projected as the facility expands, and; almost half of all Haitians can access basic health services U.S.-supported facilities. Much more remains to be done, and the country’s reconstruction and development will continue for many years. The following highlights key accomplishments to date in each of the four pillars of U.S. assistance, outlines course adjustments made, and provides an overview of total U.S. post-earthquake funding to Haiti.

Pillar A: Infrastructure and Energy

Key Achievements:
  • Housed more than 328,000 earthquake-displaced Haitians by providing transitional shelters, repairs to damaged homes, support to host families, and rental vouchers.
  • Constructed more than 900 permanent new homes to date.
  • Removed 2.7 million cubic meters of removable earthquake rubble – 36 percent of the estimated 7.4 million cubic meters removed.
  • Rehabilitated and upgraded five electrical substations in Port-au-Prince.
  • Converted cookstoves for 61,000 businesses and households from charcoal to clean liquefied natural gas.
  • Constructed a 10 megawatt power plant servicing the Caracol Industrial Park and 7,000 local households and businesses.


  • From the beginning, private sector involvement was required to supplement the U.S. government efforts to expand port services in the north. However, after considerable due diligence it was determined that private-sector interest for a new port venture in Haiti’s north is not sufficient at this time. Consequently, the U.S. government is providing assistance to the Government of Haiti to renovate and expand port facilities at the existing Cap-Haïtien port that will accommodate a larger volume of containers and increase economic activity in northern Haiti.
  • During implementation of the new settlements program, impediments surfaced to realizing significant new housing construction plans. This led to a shift in permanent shelter programming that emphasizes more innovative ways to help Haitians build homes and communities on their own. The new approach targets a greater role for private sector developers to improve and expand the housing stock, and includes housing finance opportunities for low-income Haitians, neighbourhood upgrades, and support to help Haitians transition select temporary facilities into safe permanent communities.

Pillar B: Food and Economic Security

Key Achievements:

  • More than 70,000 farmers have increased their crop yields and incomes through use of better seeds, improved farming techniques, and better access to markets.
  • Approximately 33,000 hectares are under improved watershed management and five million seedlings were planted.
  • Fed 400,000 Haitians rendered vulnerable due to tropical storms and drought conditions in 2013.
  • Launched innovative “e-vouchers” in some of Haiti’s poorest areas to improve access to locally produced food through this electronic food voucher safety net.
  • Supported the creation to date of nearly 5,000 jobs in Haiti’s underdeveloped northern region by partnering with the Inter-American Development Bank, the Government of Haiti and the private sector in the development of the Caracol Industrial Park.
  • Provided more than 54,000 agricultural loans and extended approximately $57 million in loan guarantees to the banking system to facilitate easier access to credit for small and medium enterprises.
  • Expanded the use of mobile money making banking services through cells phone possible for the first time for many.


  • In 2014, approximately $13 million was provided to assist more than 200,000 Haitians impacted by drought conditions in the Northwest Department and in La Gonaïve Island. Services included agricultural support, food vouchers, and short-term work programs.

Pillar C: Health and Other Basic Services

Key Achievements:

  • Nearly half of all Haitians have access to basic health services at U.S.- supported health facilities.
  • Approximately $1 billion is being invested over five years (2011-2016) by the United States on essential healthcare services in Haiti.
  • The U.S.-supported national measles, rubella, and polio immunization campaign has reached over 90 percent coverage.
  • Supported the reconstruction of Haiti’s University Hospital and other damaged health facilities.
  • Through PEPFAR, HIV/AIDS indicators have dramatically improved over the last decade. In 2014 alone, 900,000 Haitians were tested for HIV and more than 62,000 received life-saving treatment.
  • U.S. support for cholera treatment and prevention as well as assistance for clean water and sanitation is helping to dramatically lower the number of new cholera cases; in November 2014 the Haitian Ministry of Health reported cholera incidence rates down 97 percent since 2011.
  • U.S. support is advancing efforts to eliminate malaria and lymphatic filariasis from Haiti.
  • More than 600 semi-permanent furnished classrooms were constructed after the earthquake, enabling more than 60,000 children to return to school.
  • An early-grade reading program is improving the reading skills of more than 28,000 children, and efforts are underway to expand the program to reach more than a million children.


  • The outbreak of cholera in Haiti in 2010 prompted a swift U.S. response to this public health emergency. $95 million was allocated for diagnosis, treatment and prevention. To ensure sustained focus on this disease, the U.S. government is helping Haiti to integrate cholera services into existing treatment and prevention platforms of other deadly diarrheal diseases.

Pillar D: Governance and Rule of Law

Key Achievements:

  • Supported the training of 3,300 new Haitian National Police (HNP) officers in support of the Government of Haiti’s goal to reach 15,000 officers by the end of 2016.
  • Deployed 110 United Nations Police (UNPOL) to advise and mentor the HNP; the current U.S. contingent of UNPOLs is 82.
  • With the New York City Police Department, provided training to a new HNP community policing unit, which doubled in size to 80 officers and operates in several Port-au-Prince neighbourhoods.
  • In partnership with the Miami-Dade Police Department, trained and equipped the HNP counter-narcotics unit (BLTS), growing it from about 40 to 197 officers and adding a 20-dog K-9 unit.
  • Helped HNP to improve administrative, logistics, management, and oversight capabilities.
  • Completed construction of six police stations and the presidential security unit barracks.
  • Deployed an electronic financial management system that 35 government offices are using to enhance accountability and transparency of revenue and expenditure.
  • Provided technical assistance to process 4,000 cases of prolonged pre-trial detention, including the release of some 1,000 detainees who had already served their sentences.
  • Provided expertise and training to Parliament to draft, debate and pass priority legislation on anti-money laundering, international adoption procedures, and anti-trafficking in persons.
  • Established Haiti’s first electronic judicial case management information system in Saint-Marc that allows the judiciary to track cases from arrival in the prosecutor’s office to court adjudication.
  • Helped reconstruct more than 30,000 case files damaged or destroyed in the earthquake.
  • Began construction of three correctional facilities to help alleviate overcrowding and improve conditions in Haiti’s prisons.
  • Raised awareness of and helped reduce gender-based violence (GBV) by providing cross training to police and justice officials and strengthening capacity and referral networks of civil society partners providing GBV prevention and response services. Supported anti-GBV public messaging and referral services to victims for testing and counselling.


  • The holding of delayed parliamentary and local elections is important for Haiti’s democratic development and to advance progress made in reconstruction and development. The United States advocates for timely free and fair elections in Haiti.

U.S. Government Haiti Post-Earthquake Funding*
As of September 30, 2014

Available Funding Obligations Disbursements % Disbursed
Humanitarian Relief Assistance $1.3 billion $1.3 billion $1.3 billion 100%
Recovery,Reconstruction &Development $2.7 billion $2.2 billion $1.8 billion 66%
TOTAL $4 billion $3.5 billion $3.1 billion 77%

*Totals might not add up precisely due to rounding

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2014 Corruption Perception Index by Transparency International


Transparency International, the non-governmental organization taking on the task of monitoring and publicizing both corporate and political corruption in the international world, yearly publishes an index of the perceived level of corruption by country. We acknowledge that efforts like this are vital to regulating and improving the global political economy; especially in an era riddled with recession and corporate infiltration of the political process. The people of the world, indeed, must be aware of the extent to which their country is said to be in good standing.

However, we advise you to keep in mind that in order to measure corruption, the agency undertaking the task must set its own definitions and parameters as context. It is within this context that our countries are measured. This means that our own countries whether ranked in a positive or negative light are actually held to the standard of the surveying institution and not our own.

It is important, therefore, to know the methodology employed found below:

Corruption Perceptions Index 2014: Short Methodology Note

The Corruption Perceptions Index aggregates data from a number of different sources that provide perceptions of business people and country experts of the level of corruption in the public sector.

The following steps are followed to calculate the [Corruption Perception Index] CPI:

  1. Select data sources: Each data source that is used to construct the Corruption Perceptions Index must fulfil the following criteria to qualify as a valid source:
    •   Quantifies perceptions of corruption in the public sector
    •   Be based on a reliable and valid methodology, which scores and ranksmultiple countries on the same scale
    •   Performed by a credible institution and expected to be repeated regularly
    •   Allow for sufficient variation of scores to distinguish between countriesThe CPI 2014 is calculated using 12 different data sources from 11 different institutions that capture perceptions of corruption within the past two years. These sources are described in detail in the accompanying source description document.
  2. Standardise data sources to a scale of 0-100 where a 0 equals the highest level of perceived corruption and 100 equals the lowest level of perceived corruption. This is done by subtracting the mean of the data set and dividing by the standard deviation and results in z-scores, which are then adjusted to have a mean of approximately 45 and a standard deviation of approximately 20 so that the data set fits the CPI’s 0-100 scale. The mean and standard deviation are taken from the 2012 scores, so that the rescaled scores can be compared over time against the baseline year.
  3. Calculate the average: For a country or territory to be included in the CPI, a minimum of three sources must assess that country. A country’s CPI score is then calculated as the average of all standardised scores available for that country. Scores are rounded to whole numbers.
  4. Report a measure of uncertainty: The CPI is accompanied by a standard error and confidence interval associated with the score, which capture the variation in scores of the data sources available for that country/territory.

Lastly, take note that this information is only a measure of the perceived corruption of a country. This index does not give you a measure of the actual corruption levels of a country. They may vary.

Here are Transparency International’s infographics:


Remarks At the American Enterprise Institute by Victoria Nuland

LEON ARON: All right. Good morning and welcome to all. I would like to start. We have a fascinating conversation here. Thanks for coming. And thanks very much, Ambassador Nuland, for finding the time to chat with us.

You’ve had a most distinguished career, and continue to have it. And the trajectory is well known to people in this room, I think to most of them. But let me just mention a few things.

You’re Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs, meaning you’re responsible for 50 countries, as well as NATO, as well as the European Union, and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. You have served as the State Department’s spokesperson. You were ambassador to NATO. You were deputy national security adviser to the vice president. And, from 1993 to 1996, you were chief of staff to Deputy Secretary Strobe Talbott.

 this is a personal note – and it was in Strobe’s office, in late January of 1995 that I first met you. And, if I may, I would like to go back to that time. I remember that both and you and Strobe were quite pleased, even happy, if this is the right emotion for professional diplomats, and the reason for that was that the so-called Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances to Ukraine was signed by the United States, the U.K., Russia, and Ukraine, just two months before, in December of ’94.And

In exchange for Ukraine’s accession to the treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and the pledge to transfer the Soviet era nuclear weapons to Russia, the signatories, I quote, “Reaffirm their commitment to Ukraine’s independence and sovereignty and existing borders; refrain from the threat of use of force against territorial integrity or political independence of Ukraine and from economic coercion to subordinate to their interest the exercise by Ukraine of the rights inherent in its sovereignty.” That’s a pretty comprehensive list. Congratulations.

But things have changed. And where do you think the change has come from, and why?

ASSISTANT SECRETARY NULAND: Well, first of all, Leon, it’s great to be here with you. It’s great to be back at AEI with so many friends. Thank you for coming out.

And it is truly interesting to think back that it was 20 years ago that we met, and at that point, we had so much hope about being able to mix reforming, democratizing Russia into the fabric of the international system, that we could lift all boats, including the lives of 150 million Russian people.

It is true that one of the first major pieces of negotiation that I ever worked on in my career was the denuclearization of Kazakhstan, Belarus, and Ukraine. I continue to think that that was the right decision for those countries to make, to move in the direction of modern European states that secure themselves through their prosperity, through their partnership with other strong democracies rather than needing nuclear weapons.

That said, part of that deal, as you have underscored, was the commitment of all the Budapest powers, notably including the Russian Federation, to keep their hands off the territory of Ukraine. And, obviously, that has not happened.

  1. ARON: You spoke to the Helsinki Commission of the U.S. Congress last April, and you said, “Today, Ukraine is a frontline state in the struggle for freedom and all the principles that this commission holds dear.”

And, a month later, in his brilliant article in the New Republic titled “The Battle in Ukraine Means Everything,” Tim Snyder of Yale wrote, “Ukraine has no history without Europe but Europe also has no history without Ukraine. Throughout the centuries, the history of Ukraine revealed the turning points in the history of Europe. This seems to be true today.”

Now, it looks like both you and Tim Snyder are talking about the same thing. And the stakes are pretty high, aren’t they?

ASSISTANT SECRETARY NULAND: They certainly are. As you know, the United States, in a bipartisan fashion, for 25 years has worked for a Europe whole, free, and at peace. Today, the number one battleground for that aspiration is in Ukraine. And the way Ukraine goes will impact not only the neighborhood and the space between Ukraine and the European Union and NATO space but I think will also have an impact on the kind of future that the people of Russia can have.

So it is profoundly in the United States’ interest that Ukraine succeed in its aspiration to be democratic, to be more prosperous, to be unified, to be more European, to integrate with our economies, and to beat the cancer of corruption that has plagued it for so long.

And that is why we are putting so much effort into it. It is why we are working so intensively with our European partners and allies, particularly with the EU on increased economic support for Ukraine now, and it’s why we welcome the decision of the Congress in a bipartisan fashion to signal its support as well.

  1. ARON: Okay. I’ll return to corruption and Congress. You were in Ukraine I think the first week of October. What did you see?

ASSISTANT SECRETARY NULAND: You mean this past trip with the vice president?

  1. ARON: Yes. Right.

ASSISTANT SECRETARY NULAND: I think I’ve been in Ukraine eight, nine times in the last calendar year in various ways, both with bosses and on my own.

This last trip was –followed the — it was in November, with Vice President Biden. And we were there after the elections, as the Ukrainians were working to form a government. We were at that point advocating a broad coalition government with a very strong reform program.

As you saw about a week later, that government was formed with a large number of technocrats with lots of experience in the economy in particular. As you saw, the government put forward a relatively robust and very concrete reform agenda, including things like cutting the public sector by 10 percent, including broad decentralization of tax authority, including strong measures against corruption. The Rada, the Ukrainian Parliament, endorsed that, which was by a very wide margin, which speaks to strong support across Ukrainian parties to deliver on what the Ukrainian people asked for in those elections.

So now they have to implement, and, as they implement, we have to continue to support them.

  1. ARON: Let’s talk about the U.S. strategy. When you spoke to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee this past July, you outlined what to me looked like a four-part plan: support for Ukraine’s tackling urgent economic, political, and security challenges; diplomatic efforts to deescalate what you called the crisis and to encourage Russia to end support for separatists; readiness to impose further costs by way of sectorial sanctions on Russia; and reassuring frontline NATO allies and friends, like Georgia and Moldova.

It’s almost been half a year since you spoke there, and outlined that plan. Is the strategy the same? And, if it is, have there been any shifts maybe in emphasis or substance?

ASSISTANT SECRETARY NULAND: The four points that you outlined are still the way we look at the situation – support for Ukraine, protection of allies and partners, outreach diplomatically with our allies and partners to Russia, offering an off-ramp, offering de-escalation if the Kremlin is willing, primarily now focused around implementation of the peace plan, the Minsk peace plan from September that the Kremlin signed onto but has not yet implemented, and then, the final point, imposing costs for aggression. So I think you’ve seen all of those pieces since the summer continue to accelerate.

On the NATO side, you have seen us continue to, on land, sea and air, provide physical reassurance to our allies. You’ve seen the security support for Georgia and Moldova and Ukraine increase. You’ve seen now, with the congressional support for the European Readiness Initiative that will allow us to preposition equipment as necessary and further strengthen the alliance.

On the Ukraine support side, we talked about $320 million plus the $1 billion loan guarantee in U.S. support for Ukraine in 2014; very generous authorizations from the Congress in the Ukrainian Freedom Support Act, which allow us to do more in the coming period, but, of course, conditioned on Ukraine staying the reform course.

On the costs side, very tough sanctions imposed jointly by the U.S. and the EU; in September, continued discussion about what more needs to be done there, but, at the same time, making clear that those sanctions can be rolled back if the Minsk protocols are implemented, if Russia closes that border with Ukraine, pulls back equipment and fighters in eastern Ukraine, and helps release hostages. Those are the main points that we want to see, and we have made clear that sanctions will roll back if, in fact, they fulfill their obligations, but we haven’t seen it yet.

  1. ARON: You described last April Russia’s occupation of Crimea as, quote, “Rubberstamped by an illegitimate referendum conducted at the barrel of a gun.” Some of my colleagues in this town and outside have been suggesting in op-eds that, under certain conditions, the U.S. should recognize Crimea’s annexation. Do you think the U.S. will ever recognize Crimea as part of the Russian Federation?

ASSISTANT SECRETARY NULAND: Certainly not. Under current leadership, I don’t see how that is possible. It was a complete violation of international law. And once you go down that path, what’s to stop countries all over the world from biting off chunks of their neighbors at will?

  1. ARON: In the speech to the joint session of Congress on September 18, President Petro Poroshenko of Ukraine said that one can’t fight aggression with blankets.

Now, last week, the Senate unanimously passed a bill that authorizes, although not requires, the president to provide both lethal and non-lethal military assistance to Ukraine and requires to expand sanctions on Russia. It seems now that the president will sign the bill, despite some reservations. What can you tell us about all of this?

ASSISTANT SECRETARY NULAND: Well, I think the Ukraine Freedom Support Act is emblematic of the strong bipartisan, bicameral support for Ukraine and its aspirations that you see across the United States. And I know from talking to Ukrainians that that has been very important to them politically. It’s been important to them as they seek to build their reform agenda and to know that they have the support not just of the administration, but of the American people and their representatives. We’ve had a spectacular number of congressional delegations out to Ukraine, not just during the Maidan period but since, demonstrating support. And, you know, when you’re trying to do difficult new things, to have that national support is very, very important.

The bill gives us – gives the administration– authorization for a broad set of tools but it also allows considerable flexibility to use those tools in a manner that is flexible as we see how the situation develops.

  1. ARON: Very diplomatic.

ASSISTANT SECRETARY NULAND: Thank you. Thirty years.

  1. ARON: So if I could sort of probe a tiny bit – I know the answer but let me do it anyway because, you know, AEI pays my salary. So lethal assistance, defense of – obviously, we’re all talking about defensive – you know, anti-tank, anti-aircraft. Any – are we closer to it than we were before?

ASSISTANT SECRETARY NULAND: Well, first of all, let me say I think that the American people can be proud of the security support that we’ve already given to Ukraine: $118 million in calendar 2014 alone, broad authorization, as I said, from the Congress to do more next year; beginning now to do the equipping and training of Ukrainian units, which is the most important thing, to help them to be at their best, now, being willing to give heavy armor and those kinds of things, including night vision, communications gear, the kinds of things that the United States excels in and the Ukrainians clearly need.

With regard to your question about – so we’ve been doing security support up to the high-end, non-lethal defensive range, and also considerable support for border security. I don’t have the number in my head but it’s at least 70 million [dollars] in border security, which is important not just to enable us, should the Ukrainians get access back to their border in the east but they’re doing a huge amount of work now to harden the rest of the border and make it a real border as compared to the sunflower fields that we – that we saw in the east.

With regard to the question of lethal, I think you’ve heard the White House and Tony Blinken say that we keep this under review. We’re in constant dialogue with the Ukrainians about what will make a difference to them. What’s most important is that the Russians be deterred in further adventure.

  1. ARON: Thanks. Now, of course, defending against the Russian aggression is just one of the many huge problems that Ukraine faces. And you alluded to it, and I just thought that I would just collect it all in one.

You know the misery index by heart, but let me recite it for the audience: Ukraine is almost at the bottom of the Transparency International’s corruption list. Its GDP is likely to shrink by 9 percent this year, and, optimistically, by another 3 percent next year. Its hard currency reserves, at $19 billion, are almost incredibly low for a country that size. And the hryvnia has lost half of its value this year.

Now, in the testimony to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, you said that the most lasting antidote to separatism and outside interference in the medium term, is for Ukraine to beat back corruption. And Poroshenko seems to have agreed to that. He spoke – again, speaking to the Congress in September, he said – in fact, he listed what he called the sins of the Ukrainian elite: corruption, bureaucracy, and cynicism. So, some tough love along with assistance?

ASSISTANT SECRETARY NULAND: Absolutely. And, you know, we certainly believe, and I think the broad majority of Ukrainians believe that if Ukraine does not beat corruption this time, if it does not create a clean, transparent, democratic country, then it will once again blow its chance.

And they – you know, that is what the Maidan was about many things but it was certainly about the Ukrainian people being sick of being ripped off by their leaders, by oligarchs, by a non-transparent system. They want opportunity. They want to know where the money is going. They want a free market economy. They don’t want a small handful of kleptocrats running that country anymore.

That’s what the current leadership was elected on, whether it was President Poroshenko or whether it’s the Rada, and that’s what the government has committed to. There is a lot of good detail in the government’s program. Now they’re going to have to live up to it.

We’re starting to see good progress in places like Kyiv city, where Mayor Klitschko is become the kind of e-governance and he is trying to –

  1. ARON: And he can enforce it, too.

ASSISTANT SECRETARY NULAND: He can. He can. And he’s trying to make government procurement transparent. He’s trying to put all the contracting online so everybody can see.

The Ukrainian government program also includes a very ambitious program of decentralization of tax, local spending, et cetera, to reduce the number of layers, the opportunity for rip-offs in the system. This is what they’re going to have to do and it’s going to be very, very hard work, and they’re going to need a lot of help doing it, which is why a good chunk of our technical assistance and the EU’s assistance will be earmarked for that kind of work.

  1. ARON: Thanks. You spoke to the House Foreign Relations Committee in May, and you said that the U.S. and its allies remain committed to a diplomatic off-ramp should Russian choose to take it. Now, I’d like to talk about this off-ramp for a moment, if I may.

There seems to be a consensus emerging among independent Russian analysts that, at least to a large extent, the Crimean adventure was a classic strategy of authoritarian regimes, that is, to boost domestic legitimacy and popularity and justify repression by providing – by arranging for a confrontation on the outside and hoping for patriotic mobilization on the inside. There’s nothing new here, of course.

I think in Henry IV, Shakespeare has Henry telling Harry, the future Henry V this – he advises him to busy giddy minds with foreign quarrels lest they look too near onto my state.

Given that the government has been pretty successful in patriotic mobilization, and given that just, you know, the headlines of today and all past week or so that Russia’s not facing just a recession but possibly a crisis, on the one hand, and given the fact that — as I said, given the fact that it –has successfully swept the economic issues under the rug as far as domestic political situation is concerned, how reasonable is it to hope that Russia will in fact take that off-ramp given that the regime badly needs now a boost in legitimacy – or, this is certainly one option, to liberalize, to decentralize, to do what Alexei Kudrin has been suggesting for five years, or do the opposite, do the classic authoritarian thing, which is up the ante and instead of taking an off-ramp, start nibbling, for example, on the Baltic states in order to continue with what has been a pretty successful patriotic mobilization.

ASSISTANT SECRETARY NULAND: Well, Leon, there’s a lot in the way you phrased this so I don’t know exactly where to start.

  1. ARON: Tease it from any angle.

ASSISTANT SECRETARY NULAND: Exactly. I mean, look, there’s no question that the Russian economy was already in trouble when the Kremlin chose to bite off Crimea, and it was a very nice distraction from the fact that economy was already not going to grow at that moment.

But it doesn’t change the fact that the structure of the Russian state, the Russian economy, prosperity has changed over the 20 years that Russians have been allowed to vote for their leaders. The Russian economy is deeply knitted into the global economy, and that also creates opportunity but it creates vulnerability for authoritarian regimes.

Now, whether or not those making decisions in Russia over the last year fully understood their vulnerability to reputational things, like the fact that when you violate international law repeatedly, it has a knockoff effect on the environment for investment in your country, not to mention the constraints that already existed and were growing inside the Russian system; or whether it’s the fact that there’s – what we’ve done through sanctions on the one hand but also the chilling effect it has on willingness to invest further when there’s that kind of uncertainty.

But the largest issue here I think is the broader economic mismanagement over more than a decade where the Russian economy was not diversified away from hydrocarbons. And the Russian people I think did not appreciate how vulnerable they were to this lack of diversification.

I think because the Kremlin fully controls information now into most households, they also didn’t appreciate the costs of these adventures in Ukraine, not only the material cost of maintaining tens of thousands of Russian soldiers on the border of Ukraine or in Crimea, but also the knockoff effect of sanctions and isolation, et cetera. And now it’s coming right to Russian kitchen tables with the devaluation of the ruble, with the inflation gone wild, with the cost of borrowing, et cetera.

So the question is, will this start a conversation inside Russia about the course that they’re on, about the fact that the Kremlin has prioritized their foreign adventures over the well-being of the Russian people now, not to mention all the Russian mothers and girlfriends and sisters and parents who lost children in the adventure in the east when so many Russians were killed.

  1. ARON: How concerned are you about the Baltics?

ASSISTANT SECRETARY NULAND: Well, I think you know that we’ve put a huge amount of effort into making it absolutely clear that NATO space is inviolable. Three presidential trips to Europe this year, the investment including almost $1 billion in reinforcement that the Congress has now appropriated; the work we’ve done at NATO, including at the Wales Summit, as I said, land, sea and air, to make clear that you don’t mess with NATO allies.

We’ve also had intensive consultations with the Baltic countries, as have our NATO allies, on an integrated approach to defense. You see them strengthening border security now; you see allies from all countries participating there.

Just to say that this was not our choice but this is a clear necessity now to ensure that, first of all, those countries feel secure, feel all 28 allies are there for them but also that we made absolutely clear that this is not an adventure that anybody ought to be going on.

  1. ARON: I’m glad that you mentioned the information that gets to every Russian. Now, one of the sources – probably key source of that success in patriotic mobilization was, of course, a monopolistic propaganda.


  1. ARON: And if my recollections of my misspent Moscow youth are true, it far surpasses anything that I saw in the ’70s, in just in sheer cynicism and not to mention technology and the reach.

Now, Russian wits have been making quite a sport of it. One of them, a recent posting on the “Snob,” I think, mocked the propaganda line in this way: all the revolutions in history of humanity, beginning with Lucifer’s rebellion against God, have been designed by the United States in order to detract from the glory of Russia.

ASSISTANT SECRETARY NULAND: So we preceded Lucifer. That’s quite a – wow, wow . . . . yeah, wow.

  1. ARON: You’re part of a long tradition. And I’m coming to that. I’m coming to that. But, of course, this is (in Russian)—this is laughter through tears. A couple of weeks ago, addressing the nation in the state of Russia, President Putin said that the United States supports violence, murder and burning people alive in Ukraine.

Now, I’m bringing this up because there have been quite a private place accorded to you personally in all of this. And I brought you, and I’ll give it to you as a souvenir, this is just a few randomly selected printouts of articles. Now, I know you’re fluent in Russian, but for the audience, let me translate just the headlines that were collected here of the articles that have you.

“Nuland’s words have confirmed the U.S. control over the Ukrainian opposition.” “Nuland did not mention U.S. plans to midwife a new government in Ukraine.” “Kyiv infested with neo-Nazis is a U.S. piece of work.” “Who is behind the Bandera Nazis? Nuland arrives to Ukraine to give Poroshenko marching order prior to the elections.” “Nuland is carrying toast to Kyiv.” “Nuland is preparing a new Maidan in Kyiv.”

Now, what do you think of all of this and how it affects you? And there’s a question that I always wanted to ask you. Those cookies that you distributed to pro-democracy demonstrators in Moscow and Kyiv that ranked the Moscow propagandists especially deeply, do you have a recipe? (Laughter.) And if you do and it’s not copyrighted, we’ll be happy to post it on the AEI site.

ASSISTANT SECRETARY NULAND: First of all, to correct some dezinformatsiya, they were sandwiches. They were not cookies. Second –

  1. ARON: Wait. Wait. In which instance? Both Moscow and at Maidan or –

ASSISTANT SECRETARY NULAND: I don’t think I gave out sandwiches in Moscow. Did I?

  1. ARON: Well, you were supposed to – Okay. All right. All right. Well, the menu is changing as we speak. Okay.


  1. ARON: I think we have correspondents here from Sputnik and Novosti, so take notice, please.

ASSISTANT SECRETARY NULAND: So, first of all – first of all, this happened – I can’t remember – it was December 11th or December 12th, just to tell the story. Cathy Ashton of the European Union and I were both in Kyiv to try to help foster some dialogue at that point between Maidan leadership, the opposition leadership, and President Yanukovych. She had spent some four hours with Yanukovych and I had worked with the opposition.

  1. ARON: And Ashton, of course, is in charge of the European Union’s foreign policy.

ASSISTANT SECRETARY NULAND: Right. And we had made a decision after the OSCE meeting to try to go together and to work in tandem. So we were there one night, and then I was to see Yanukovych the next day.

And what happened was, at 1:00 a.m. in the morning, we were all awakened because Yanukovych had order the Berkut security forces onto the Maidan. There were some 2,000 young guys in these sort of Adam Ant suits pushing onto the innocent demonstrators, while Cathy Ashton and I were there.

And what happened was the Maidanchiki starting ringing the bells and started singing. And they ended up surrounding the Berkut, and the Berkut retreated at about three o’clock in the morning. You’ll recall that we issued a statement right in the middle. Secretary Kerry called it disgusting that they were putting security forces onto the Maidan.

So the next morning, the feeling was that I couldn’t go down – we were all going down to see the Maidan leaders regularly during this period, as was Ashton. But I didn’t feel, in classic Slavic tradition, that I could go empty-handed. So we brought the sandwiches, not only to those demonstrators who had had such a traumatic evening but we also gave them to the Berkut, to these poor 18, 19, 20-year-old Ukrainian kids who had been ordered by their president to move against their own mothers and grandmothers.

So it was a symbol of sympathy with the horrible situation that Yanukovych had put Ukrainians in, pitting them against each other. Obviously, that wasn’t useful to Moscow propaganda to point that out but there are pictures of me giving the sandwiches also to the Berkut, who were equal victims of the authoritarian structure which was also aided and abetted from the north.

  1. ARON: This is a very important footnote to history.


  1. ARON: Because this (in Russian), you know, these cookies are all over – all over the Russian media. So, all right, letters to the editor.

ASSISTANT SECRETARY NULAND: That said, the United States will never be shy about supporting efforts for more democracy, more popular choice, more enfranchisement anywhere in the world, as you know.

  1. ARON: Excellent. Thank you. I think – if you don’t mind, we have a few minutes for questions.


  1. ARON: Anders. Microphones are coming. If you could just – I know who you are but if you could identify yourself.

QUESTION: Thank you very much. Very interesting. And what I would particularly would like to ask you, that is, right now, it’s a discussion about the IMF says that at least 15 billion dollars is needed for Ukraine.

Sorry. I forgot to say. Anders Aslund from the Peterson Institute.

And, basically, it should be in addition to the IMF funding committed and more money than this will be needed for the next two years. The total amount is something like $50 billion. Of course you can’t say anything about how much the U.S. will give but how do you see the process going forward? First, there will be an IMF program, we presume, then there will be a donor conference. And how do you see this donor process going forward? Thank you very much.

  1. ARON: Thank you, Anders.

ASSISTANT SECRETARY NULAND: Well, thanks, Anders. And just to shout out, Anders Aslund, who has been a mentor and a champion for two, three decades for those across the Euro-Atlantic space who have wanted more open, more democratic economies. And thank you for the work that you’ve done all these years.

With regard to Ukraine’s IMF program, you will have seen that senior IMF leadership was in Ukraine this week issuing a public validation of the reform program going forward, but also confirming that the program agreed last year is going to need a significant adjustment, that there is a fiscal hole now to the tune of 10 to 15 billion dollars.

We have been working with the IMF. We have been working with the Ukrainians. We have been working with senior EU member states and with the commission on the responsibility that we will all have, if the Ukrainians stay on track, to help fill this hole.

We anticipate that the IMF will come forward with formal conclusions relatively shortly. We expect that the IMF and the World Bank will have to increase their support for Ukraine, but that the United States, Europe and other friends of Ukraine around the world will as well.

We internally have been preparing more support for Ukraine. I think we will wait and hear what the IMF requires. But we’ve also been in very active conversation with the EU asking that they also give a signal of support. You will have seen President Juncker come forward, saying that there is a need now and beginning to get EU member states ready as well.

But, again, this has to be pegged to implementation of reform. It has to be pegged to President Poroshenko, Prime Minister Yatsenyuk, the government, the Rada, and the Ukrainian people meeting their commitments to themselves, to the international community to get it right this time in terms of corruption and in terms of really liberalizing the economy and making it better integrated with Europe and better integrated with the world system.

  1. ARON: Yes. The gentleman behind Anders.

QUESTION: Thank you, Madame Secretary. And Merry Christmas. Two very quick questions.

  1. ARON: Could you identify yourself please?

QUESTION: John Gizzi, chief political correspondent for Newsmax. Two quick questions.

First, have the sanctions made any noticeable changes that you can detect in President Putin’s foreign policy dealing with Ukraine or any other country?

And, second, as you may very well know, Foreign Affairs this month rewired the whole jalopy of the promises given by the Western powers to Russia 25 years ago about not expanding NATO and the continued specter of Ukraine becoming a NATO member or Georgia they speculate are responsible for the recent actions. Would you comment on that?

  1. ARON: Thank you.

ASSISTANT SECRETARY NULAND: Well, first of all, there were no promises made to Russia that it would have a veto at any point, by any American or European leader that I am aware of over other countries’ sovereign choice of alliance. That’s just not the way we do business. So, and anybody who tells you otherwise doesn’t know the true situation.

With regard to the effect of sanctions, you know, I think the market information that we’re seeing from Russia today is a clear indication that the isolation that the Kremlin has wrought, the pressure that the U.S. and Europe and others have brought to bear on the Russian economy is having an effect.

I personally believe that there might have been even more aggressive action in Ukraine had we not had a steadily escalating set of measures together, the U.S. and Europe, had had the U.S. and Europe not been completely unified, along with Australia, Japan, other friends, in our approach. There were even worse opportunities than what we saw over the course of the year.

But now, we have a really toxic cocktail with the effect of sanctions, with low oil prices, with the impact finally being felt inside Russia of the economic mismanagement of the last 10 to 15 years, where the economy is so heavily hydrocarbon dependent.

So it is a point of decision making I think for the Russian leadership but also for the Russian people whether this aggressive policy vis-à-vis neighbors is worth it, and whether this choice to prioritize imperial ambition over the needs of your own citizens, over their well-being is really in the best interest of the Russian Federation.

  1. ARON: Please. Right there.

QUESTION: Hello, Ms. Nuland. I’m Mykola Vorobiov.

  1. ARON: Identify yourself.

QUESTION: Yeah. Yeah. I’m Mykola Vorobiov. I’m a Ukrainian journalist, political journalist, and since June, I am a military journalist to totally I spent around seven weeks in battle zone in eastern Ukraine. And I recently came here to share my experience from the ground.

And, firstly, I would like to express my regards from the Ukrainian people to everything you do for my country.

And, secondly, probably you are more aware than me, but I want just to remind something, really what happened there. So regarding military support, there are a lot of debates here. And around 80 percent of vehicles in the Ukrainian Army, it comes from the Soviet past, so most of vehicles is around 40, 50 years. I have– got some like Kalashnikov and some machine guns which had like maybe 60-year history. And this is really old, this is really ancient, and it’s impossible. So all modern weapons which we can receive like modern weapon – (inaudible) – it goes from Russians as (inaudible) of course. And even though in September, our president, he estimated they’ve already lost up to 70 percent of these vehicles in battle zones. So you probably know, and I believe that this is true.

I interviewed some Afghanistan veterans, I mean, a veteran who was engaged in the war in Afghanistan during the Soviet Union and now he went to Eastern Ukraine. And he said to me that compared to Afghanistan, it was a honeymoon for them in comparison with this full-scale war because all Taliban had, the most dangerous it was either Stinger or some rockets or machine guns but they never used (inaudible) missile launchers like Russians do right now in Eastern Ukraine. And –

  1. ARON: I’m sorry. If you could get to the question.

QUESTION: The question is about can we expect really military support regarding this? And are you aware that the Russians will never step back from Eastern Ukraine? Thank you.

ASSISTANT SECRETARY NULAND: Well, thank you for that. Just to say, with regard to your particular concern about armored vehicles, we have been in discussion with the Ukrainian government on this problem, particularly after the extremely intense fighting in August and September, which resulted in the loss of so much equipment.

And as the vice president announced when he was in Ukraine, we are now providing an opportunity for Ukraine to have some of the up-armored vehicles that are coming back from Afghanistan. And the Ukrainians are pretty good at fixing stuff so a lot of that will be repaired and made ready in Ukraine itself.

But you’re absolutely right. Part of the issue on the reform docket – and there’s quite a bit about this in the government reform plan – is that the entire structure of procurement, battle management of the Ukrainian military is going to have to be realigned and reformed. That’s going to take support. It’s going to take effort. That is why one of our main lines of work with Ukraine is this bottom-up review of the military that European command has been conducting, and beginning the equipping and training of Ukrainian military units at their request. So we’re very much focused on that.

Again, we will continue to use our tools of diplomatic pressure but also diplomatic opportunity to try to get Russia to fulfill the commitments that it made in Minsk. The Minsk agreement, signed by Russia, by separatists, by Ukraine on September 5th and elaborated on September 19th is a good and fair deal but it requires the return of that international border to sovereignty, closing it to further transfers of equipment and personnel. It requires a withdrawal of foreign forces and military. It requires a hostage exchange.

So that is what we are pushing for. We will continue to say to Russia that if that is fully implemented, sanctions will be rolled back. It’s Russia’s choice.

  1. ARON: Thanks. Right here. Yeah.

QUESTION: Thank you. Madame Secretary, thank you for your time. Very quickly –

  1. ARON: Who are you?

QUESTION: Forgive me. David Colton. It’s a pleasure. Madame Secretary, on your last point, Lavrov’s recent speeches seem to be resurrecting what Putin put on the table at Yalta, back in August, that is that the cutting loose of Novorossiya as an ideological project, pushing Donbas and its costs onto Ukraine and the West, they keep Crimea, and it’s sort of a mulligan. And that, after that Minsk Agreement which you mentioned, the Pskov brigades went in. The military escalation continued.

If in December 26th, going forward to resurrect Minsk, my question to you is how do we test the Russians that it’s not yet another temporary truce, particularly given that sanctions in Europe in two stages, I think early in the spring and then in summer, are scheduled to automatically wind down if not renew? Are they playing a different game to get out of sanctions with the same kind of (in Russian) they offered us from Yalta?

ASSISTANT SECRETARY NULAND: Look, I’ve long since stopped trying to get inside the head of decision makers in the Kremlin. It hasn’t been a productive exercise.

What we’re trying to do is to make it clear that there is another way, that if de-escalation happens on the Russian side, de-escalation will happen on the U.S. and the EU side, to make clear that what we’re asking is that they live up to the obligations that they undertook in September. You know, traditionally, in that part of the world, nobody likes to fight in the deep winter. Napoleon found out what happens when you try.

So the question is, can we use this period when fighting is never a good game, and the clear pressure that is evident now, to have cooler heads prevail, and to get back on a track where Minsk is implemented piece by piece in a way that brings peace and security and reintegration of Donbas.

The Ukrainian government understands that if that border gets closed and if they can have access again to their own people and their own cities, that there is an enormous reconstruction job to be done, that people have suffered a huge amount. I think they are prepared and we are prepared to help, but not in a circumstance where assistance is stolen to fuel the war effort, not in a circumstance where 500 pieces of additional military equipment have gone in since the Minsk agreement was signed.

So we have to hope that winter will be a period of cooler heads and come out of it in the spring in a better place but that is very much in the hands of those who are fueling this fire.

  1. ARON: Sir. Right there.

QUESTION: Thank you. Thank you for your comments, Madame Secretary. My name is Valery Kavaleuski. I’m from Belarus Politics Blog.

  1. ARON: Belarus Politics –

QUESTION: Blog. Yes.

  1. ARON: Blog. OK.

QUESTION: My question is about Belarus. Since the beginning of the war for Ukraine, there has been considerable change in the rhetoric of the United States with regard to the regime of Lukashenko, although there has been no change in the domestic policies of Lukashenko and his dictatorial practices.

Can you say anything about the policy change of the United States towards the regime of Lukashenko? Is there something ongoing or upcoming in this regard?

And the second question is about the statement of Sergei Lavrov, Russian foreign minister, about the right of Russia to deploy nuclear weapons in Crimea. What would be the response of the United States to this?

ASSISTANT SECRETARY NULAND: On the last point, first of all, Crimea belongs to Ukraine. Second of all, any effort to further militarize that region will be extremely dangerous and would not go unanswered I believe by those of us who also live in that neighborhood.

On the question of Belarus, I’m not sure quite what you’re referring to. We have for many years had an ongoing dialogue with the government of Belarus regarding our concerns about human rights, our concerns about the political environment for dissent. It’s been interesting, in the course of the last year, you’ve seen what we’ve seen, which is that the leadership in Belarus is quite uncomfortable being offered a binary choice.

And, you know, I remember seeing the prime minister of Belarus in September, and — at the UN General Assembly, and telling him that they’d done more for their country in having Minsk the term, the brand Minsk be emblematic of a peace deal than we’d seen in a long time.

But we remain open to a warmer, more integrated relationship with Belarus as the human rights situation improves. We’ve given some concrete ideas to the government of Belarus. We’ve been able to make some small steps together. We’re now issuing visas again there for the first time.

But, again, it’s in the hands of the leadership whether they want to take their country in a more democratic, open direction, and then we would obviously be able to respond, as would Europe.

  1. ARON: Oh, my goodness. Right over there. Yes, sir. You. Yeah. Yes. No, no. The person under the cameras there. Yes.


QUESTION: All right. Thank you. Creighton Jones with EIR. So my question for you, Victoria, I’m sure you’ve heard –

  1. ARON: Excuse me. What’s EIR?

QUESTION: Executive Intelligence Review.

  1. ARON: Okay.

QUESTION: You’ve probably seen the letter which has been circulating – it was printed in I think it was actually Die Zeit, and it was signed by 100 German officials, including former Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder, and it was titled “Again War in Europe, Not in Our Name.”

And the letter goes on to say, to those who would provoke Russia that remember the last person to attack Russia was Hitler and he was destroyed. Now, this is coming from Germans to evoke the image of Hitler, you can imagine the level of fear that exists among certain people about this going towards full-on confrontation, potentially nuclear.

So my question to you is, are you and the administration really prepared to push this thing all the way to the level of military confrontation with Russia? And if it did go to that, would you consider that a failed policy or is that part of the strategy to eventually go that far if need be?

ASSISTANT SECRETARY NULAND: Well, first of all, I would underscore the fact that the response that the U.S. and Europe have brought to bear to Russia’s aggression in Ukraine has been to use the considerable economic tools at our disposal in the form of sanctions – and political tools in the form of sanctions and the form of isolation.

We have not chosen to militarize this vis-à-vis Russia. What we are doing militarily is protecting allied territory because we have treaty obligation should NATO allies come under attack.

So it is Russia that has chosen the military course of aggression. We are seeking to change Russian choices, to bring them back into compliance with international law, primarily through political and economic tools.

  1. ARON: One more question?


  1. ARON: Please. Yes. Thanks for your patience.

QUESTION: Thank you, Mr. Aron. And thanks, Victoria, for doing this. My name is Andrei Sitov. I’m with the Russian News Agency Itar-Tass here in Washington, DC.

ASSISTANT SECRETARY NULAND: Andrei and I are old friends from my days at the podium.

QUESTION: Thank you, Victoria. I regard you as a friend also and a very skillful presenter of the American official position. Propaganda cuts both ways. I think that propaganda for the Americans is a very important tool which works probably for them better than for the Russians. Anyways.

Two questions, one from Lavrov, and one from myself.

Lavrov yesterday said that you had a satellite and an AWACS plane watching what was happening with the Malaysian airline which obviously is a major milestone in the Ukrainian conflict. Why are not you sharing the results of your observations? Russia has been asking for this for a very long time. It’s a very important point.

Secondly, from myself, obviously, economic news are in the forefront for all of us now. My question is very simple: when you hurt the Russian economy – and, by the way, I have been surprised by observing that you do want to hurt the economy and the people rather than the regime, and you’ve just described why, because you want the people to rebel, which is called regime change. But when you hurt the Russian economy, do you harm or help the Ukrainian economy? Thank you.

ASSISTANT SECRETARY NULAND: Andrei, first to your point with regard to U.S. intelligence at the time of the Malaysian airliner’s tragic shoot down, first, just to say to you that – just to remind you that Secretary Kerry on I believe it was July 21st, it was the Saturday after the shoot down, gave a very detailed discussion of what we knew from our own assets, including providing considerable detail with regard to the trajectory of the firing, et cetera.

And he made clear at that time that we believed it was shot down by a Buk missile from separatist-held territory. We stand by that. We have given all of our information, including our classified information, to the Dutch, who are the investigators, and to ICAO. And we will – we are –

  1. ARON: To whom?

ASSISTANT SECRETARY NULAND: And to ICAO, the International Civil Aviation Organization. So any efforts to say that we have not are also untrue. There will be, I believe, in the context of the Dutch case, when they roll it out – they are likely to ask us to declassify some of that, and I think we will be able to help in that regard.

But the best declassified set of information from U.S. assets is still contained in what Secretary Kerry said that day. It is — I believe it was the Saturday the 21st, but I don’t have the dates exactly in my head. We have also been very clear publicly and privately with the Russian Federation with regard to what we know.

I think the question is whether Russia has shared all of its information also with the Dutch and with ICAO. And we’ve encouraged both the Dutch and ICAO to seek information from Russia, because there’s been a lot of funky theories, let’s put it that way, coming out of Russian propaganda.

Now, on your second point. I completely reject your assertion that we seek to hurt the Russian people. On the contrary, we have sought for 20, 25 years to see that Russian people live in a more prosperous, more democratic, more open, more peaceful country. That is what I have personally committed my diplomatic career to over all these years. That’s what we have committed some 20 billion dollars in U.S. assistance to the Russian Federation over these 20 years too.

Our concern though is that it is the choices that the Russian leadership that is making that are now taking Russia back to a place of isolation, to a place where it is closed off, where its people are closed off, not just from clean, democratic, open information by the Kremlin’s propaganda campaign but also from their access to Europe, their access to markets, their access to that opportunity to live in a more open society.

So it’s the choices that the Russian leaders have made that are increasing inflation, that are closing off opportunities, even things like ending our high school exchange, which brought some 200 Russian kids to America every year. And you’ve seen, I hope, on Russian social media both on Facebook and on VKontakte all the Russian flex students saying, “Bring it back. We want a chance to go study in the United States.”

That’s the relationship we want. That’s the Russia that is in our interest, is a Russia that is strong, that is democratic, that lives up to its international obligations, that is a good partner for us. It is not we who have made these choices. It’s the leadership in Russia. It is extremely regrettable to us that the Russian people are now paying the price in their pocketbook. We want to go back to a place where we can work together, but it’s Russia’s choice.


10th. Anniversary of Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami


This month marks the 10th. Anniversary of the Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami which resulted in the death of over 200 000 people. This event is counted as one of the ten worst earthquakes in recorded history. After the earthquake, the ensuing Tsunami was so strong that its effects could be substantially experienced as far as the East Coast of Alkebulan or what is known as Africa today.

This event prompted rapid advancements in Tsunami research and alert systems. Be prepared:

Here are a few pictures which highlight the devastation:

Want to learn more about Tsunami’s and Earthquakes?

Japan's Emperor Celebrates His 81st. Birthday

December 23rd. 2014 marks the 81st. Birthday of His Imperial Majesty; the Emperor of Japan. Japan’s Emperor has been in office since January 7th. 1989 and ranks 125th. in the line of successive Japanese Emperors. In addition to his official duties, His Imperial Majesty is a published researcher in Ichthyology. As a scholar, he enjoys the study of fish and is a member of several academic societies.

As a result of this being the birthday of her Emperor, Japan  marks the 23rd. of December as a national holiday. On this day, the gates of His Imperial Majesty’s residence will be opened to the public in order to facilitate a public ceremony at the Imperial Palace.


The world joins in celebration of His Imperial Majesty’s Birthday and wishes him and Japan much success in their endeavours.